Style Guidelines

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The final version of an article accepted for publication should include an abstract (around 100 words) and a few keywords (up to 6), to be placed at the beginning of the article, after the title and the author’s name. A brief bio (affiliation, status, recent books/current research) should be placed after the endnotes.

American spelling and punctuation (but not serial commas) should be used throughout (e.g. characterize, color, traveling); quotations, of course, should retain the original spelling and style. Dates should follow the style: December 10, 1999; twentieth century.

History & Memory does not use the bibliographic style of referencing. All bibliographical information, explanations of terms or anecdotal information should be placed in endnotes at the end of the text, in accordance with The Chicago Manual of Style (humanities). Endnotes, which should be kept to a minimum, should include the following information:

Full name of author or editor, Title of Book: Subtitle, name of translator if relevant, (Place: Publisher, date of publication), page nos. (without p./pp.) (do not use f./ff.).

Full name of author, “Title of Article: Subtitle,” Name of Journal vol. no., issue no. (date): pages.

Full name of author, “Title of Article,” Name of Newspaper/Magazine, date, page.

Full name of author, “Title of Dissertation” (PhD diss., university, year), pages.

Use a short title for subsequent references; use “ibid.” for reference to the same title as in the previous note. Do not use “idem” or “op. cit.”

Titles of works in languages other than English should be given in the original (in transliteration for languages not using the Latin alphabet), with the translation in brackets(French, Italian, Spanish and German need not be translated).

Electronic sources should be used sparingly as websites tend to be unstable (except for those of large organizations). Give most recent date of access.


  1. Maurice Halbwachs, , The Collective Memory, trans. Francis J. Ditter, Jr. and Vida Yazdi Ditter (New York: Harper & Row, 1980), 43–47, 110–12.
  2. Saul Friedländer, “Trauma, Memory and Transference,” in Geoffrey Hartman, ed., Holocaust Remembrance: The Shapes of Memory (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994), 56.
  3. Keith Jenkins, “A Postmodern Reply to Perez Zagorin,” History and Theory 38, no. 1 (May 2000): 181–200.
  4. Mieke Bal, Jonathan Crewe and Leo Spitzer, eds., Acts of Memory: Cultural Recall in the Present (Hanover and London: University Press of New England, 1999).
  5. Jenkins, “A Postmodern Reply,” 193.
  6. Ibid., 197–99.
  7. John Carey, “Lost in the Undergrowth,” Sunday Times, April 9, 1995, 3.
  8. Mikhail Belov, Pobediteli i pobezhdennye (The victors and the defeated) (Moscow: Voennoe izdatel’stvo, 1996).
  9. Friedlander, "Trauma," 43.
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